Value-Added Products from Waste
Creative ways waste is being recylced...
Turning Beer Byproducts (leftover Barley) Into Carbon Nanotubes
Nov 26, 2019 -
Scientists have created a low-cost renewable fuel for homes in winter, charcoal for summer barbecues, active carbon for water filters and treating poison, and carbon nanotubes for cancer treatment and drug delivery.
Capturing Carbon from Air using Carbon Nanotubes
October 25, 2019 - A significantly less energy-intensive way to capture carbon from air at virtually any concentration level.
Whiskey Makers Are Making a Play For Climate-Conscious Drinkers
Distilleries are touting water conservation, forest planting, butterfly waystations and bee protection.
In Paper Production
The expanse of the global lignin market is being driven by the increasing demand for carbon fibers in the construction and automotive industries. Paper mills
currently discharge million of gallons of lignin effluent into waterways daily.
Lignin is an organic, often pale-yellow, connecting substance found between and in plant cells.
Lignin is the second largest renewable carbon source on the planet after cellulose.
Lignin Market Valuation
Conversion of Biomass into Acrylonitrile, a Key Precursor for Carbon Fiber Manufacturing
"The catalyst used for the nitrilation chemistry is about three times less expensive
than the catalyst used in the petroleum-based process and it's a simpler process. The chemistry is endothermic so it doesn't produce excess heat, and unlike the petroleum-based process, it doesn't produce the toxic byproduct hydrogen cyanide. Rather, the bio-based process only produces water and alcohol as its byproducts." Related: An Alternative To Carbon Fiber from Fossil Fuels
LignoTech Florida - Owned by Rayonier Advanced Materials (45%) and Borregaard (55%)
"The 110 million USD investment represents a production capacity of 100,000 metric tonnes lignin measured as dry substance. In a planned second phase, the capacity can later be expanded by 50,000 tonnes."
Source: Recent Advances in Applications of Acidophilic Fungi to Produce Chemicals
How to use Lignin as a Fuel Cell, with no Carbon Emission
Hydrocarbon chains are broken down to energy-rich benzenediols. The popular conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS prevents carbon dioxide from forming.
Fast Growth Forestry - for Superwood, Nanowood and Transparent Wood
How to Grow a Forest Really, Really Fast
To establish a mature, native forest in ten times the normal rate of forests planted by humans, amend the soil to a depth of one meter, add a locally abundant biomass. Plant three to five saplings per square meter. "This grows into a forest so dense that after eight months, sunlight can’t reach the ground. At this point, every drop of rain that falls is conserved, and every leaf that falls is converted into humus. The more the forest grows, the more it generates nutrients for itself, accelerating further growth. This density also means that individual trees begin competing for sunlight — another reason these forests grow so fast."
Biosolids as Fast Growth Forest Fertilizer on Marginal Soils
Adding organic matter to soil reduces surface runoff and erosion, improves the capacity to hold water and nutrients while increasing yields (UGA
Urban sewage is easier to treat because it doesn't contain heavy metals from industrial activities that typically occur in rural areas.
Deep-row biosolid applications
allows for forest products at sites near treatment plants in urban areas.
Deep-rooted plant material uptakes nitrogent to minimize leaching into groundwater.
In Egypt, deserts are being reclaimed
and eucalyptus trees are producing wood at four times the rate of pine plantations in Germany.
Super Wood - Stronger than most Titanium Alloys
Super wood is created by removing lignin from soft woods like pine or balsa, which grow fast and are more environmentally friendly. The process can replace slower-growing but denser woods like teak, in furniture or buildings.
Nanowood - Better Insulator than Styrofoam
Nanowood is produced by boiling out the lignin, treating with Hydrogen Peroxide, then freeze-drying the remaining pure cellulose.
Transparent Wood - Three Times Better Insulator than Glass
Infused with polymers and sturdier than traditional wood, transparent wood can be used in place of less environmentally friendly materials, such as plastics.
As a daylight-harvesting roof, the aligned wood channels guide the sunlight into the house without relying of the sun’s angle.